Claude M. Steele is best known for his work on stereotype threat and its application to minority student academic performance. His earlier work dealt with research on the self (e.g., self-image, self- affirmation) as well as the role of self-regulation in addictive behaviors. In 2010, he authored Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us, a book that summarized years of research on stereotype threat and the underperformance of minority students in higher education. A hallmark of his work is that it rigorously applies social science research to problems of major societal significance.
Professor Steele holds B.A. in Psychology from Hiram College, an M.A. in Social Psychology from Ohio State University, and a Ph.D. in Social Psychology and Statistical Psychology from Ohio State University. He also holds honorary doctorates from Yale University, Northwestern University, University of Chicago, University of Michigan, DePaul University, and Claremont Graduate University.
Throughout his career, Professor Steele has served in a number of major academic leadership positions, including Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost at UC Berkeley, the I. James Quillen Dean for the School of Education at Stanford University, and the 21st Provost of Columbia University. Past roles also include serving as the President of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, President of the Western Psychological Association, member of the American Psychological Society Board of Directors, trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation, and trustee of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
Among his many honors, Professor Steele has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Sciences, the National Science Board, the National Academy of Education, and the American Philosophical Society, and he is a Fellow of the American Institutes for Research and the American Academy of Political and Social Science.
In addition, he is the recipient of the Stanford University Dean's Teaching Award, American Psychological Association Senior Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest, APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award, the American Psychological Society William James Fellow Award for Distinguished Scientific Career Contribution (2000), the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Gordon Allport Prize, the SPSSI Kurt Lewin Memorial Award, and the Donald Campbell Award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
- Applied Social Psychology
- Attitudes and Beliefs
- Causal Attribution
- Culture and Ethnicity
- Intergroup Relations
- Interpersonal Processes
- Person Perception
- Prejudice and Stereotyping
- Self and Identity
- Social Cognition
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- Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: How stereotypes affect us and what we can do. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
- Adams, G., Garcia, D. M., Purdie-Vaughns, V., & Steele, C. M. (2006). The detrimental effects of a suggestion of sexism in an instruction situation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(5), 602-615.
- Cheryan, S., Plaut, V. C., Davies, P. G., & Steele, C. M. (2009). Ambient belonging: How stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(6), 1045-1060.
- Cohen, G., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. D. (1999). The mentor's dilemma: Providing critical feedback across the racial divide. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1302-1318.
- Davies, P. G., Spencer, S. J., & Steele, C. M. (2005). Clearing the air: Identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(2), 276-287.
- Davies, P. G., Steele, C. M., & Markus, H. R. (2008) A nation challenged: The impact of foreign threat on America's tolerance for diversity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(2), 308-318.
- Deaux, K., Bikmen, N., Gilkes, A., Ventuneac, A., Joseph, Y., Payne, Y. A., & Steele, C. M. (2007). Becoming American: Stereotype threat effects in Afro-Caribbean immigrant groups. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70(4), 384-404.
- Goff, P. A., Steele, C. M., & Davies, P. G. (2008). The space between us: Stereotype threat and distance in interracial contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 91-107.
- Josephs, R. A., Larrick, R. P., Steele, C. M., & Nisbett, R. E. (1992). Protecting the self from the negative consequences of risky decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(1), 26-37.
- Marx, D. M., Brown, J. L., & Steele, C. M. (1999). Allport's legacy and the situational press of stereotypes. Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 491-502.
- Murphy, M. C., Steele, C. M., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Signaling threat: How situational cues affect women in math, science, and engineering settings. Psychological Science, 18(10), 879-885.
- Nussbaum, A. D., & Steele, C. M. (2007). Situational disengagement and persistence in the face of adversity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(1), 127-134.
- Purdie-Vaughns, V., Steele, C. M., Davies, P. G., Ditlmann, R., & Crosby, J. R. (2008). Social identity contingencies: How diversity cues signal threat or safety for African Americans in mainstream institutions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(4), 615-630.
- Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613-629.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. A. (2004). Stereotype threat does not live by Steele and Aronson (1995) alone. American Psychologist, 59(1), 47-48.
- Steele, C. M., & Josephs, R. A. (1990). Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects. American Psychologist, 45(8), 921-933.
- Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Lynch, M. (1993). Self-image resilience and dissonance: The role of affirmational resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 885-896.
- Crocker, J., Major, B., & Steele, C. (1998). Social stigma. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 504-553). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
- Spencer, S. J., Josephs, R. A., & Steele, C. M. (1993). Low self-esteem: The uphill struggle for self-integrity. In R. F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem and the puzzle of low self-regard. New York: Wiley.
- Steele, C. M. (1999, August). Thin ice: Stereotype threat and black college students. Atlantic Monthly, 284(2), 44-47, 50-54.
- Steele, C. M. (1992, April). Race and the schooling of black Americans. The Atlantic Monthly, 68-78.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1998). How stereotypes influence the standardized test performance of talented African American students. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White test score differences (pp. 401-427). Harvard Press.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1998). Stereotype threat and the test performance of academically successful African Americans. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White test score gap. Brookings Institution Press.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1994). Stereotype vulnerability and African-American intellectual performance. In E. Aronson (Ed.), Readings about the social animal. New York: Freeman & Co.
- Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., Hummel, M., Schoem, D., Carter, K., Harber, K., & Nisbett, R. (1998). Improving minority performance: An intervention in higher education. In C. Jencks & M. Phillips (Eds.), Black-White test score differences. Harvard Press.
- Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J.A. (2004, May 4). "Stereotype threat" a factor in the test score gap. Wall Street Journal.
- The Psychology of Diverse Communities
Department of Psychology
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Stanford, California 94305
United States of America